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2016 Statute


60-226. General provisions governing discovery. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: Depositions on oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter onto land or other property under K.S.A. 60-234, subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii) of K.S.A. 60-245 or K.S.A. 60-245a, and amendments thereto; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.

(b) Discovery scope and limits. (1) Scope in general. Unless otherwise limited by court order, the scope of discovery is as follows: Parties may obtain discovery regarding any nonprivileged matter that is relevant to the subject matter involved in the action, whether it relates to any party's claim or defense, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition and location of any documents or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons who know of any discoverable matter. Relevant information need not be admissible at the trial if the discovery appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.

(2) Limitations on frequency and extent. (A) On motion, or on its own, the court may limit the frequency or extent of discovery methods otherwise allowed by the rules of civil procedure and must do so if it determines that:

(i) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or can be obtained from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome or less expensive;

(ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity to obtain the information by discovery in the action; or

(iii) the burden or expense of the proposed discovery outweighs its likely benefit, considering the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, the parties' resources, the importance of the issues at stake in the action and the importance of the proposed discovery in resolving the issues.

(B) A party need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the party identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the party from whom discovery is sought must show that the information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause, considering the limitations of subsection (b)(2)(A). The court may specify conditions for the discovery.

(3) Insurance agreements. A party may obtain discovery of the existence and contents of any insurance agreement under which an insurance business may be liable to satisfy part or all of a possible judgment in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment. Information concerning the insurance agreement is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial. For purposes of this paragraph, an application for insurance is not a part of an insurance agreement.

(4) Trial preparation; materials. (A) Documents and tangible things. Ordinarily, a party may not discover documents and tangible things that are prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or its representative, including the other party's attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer or agent. But, subject to subsection (b)(5), those materials may be discovered if:

(i) They are otherwise discoverable under paragraph (1); and

(ii) the party shows that it has substantial need for the materials to prepare its case and cannot, without undue hardship, obtain their substantial equivalent by other means.

(B) Protection against disclosure. If the court orders discovery of those materials, it must protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions or legal theories of a party's attorney or other representative concerning the litigation.

(C) Previous statement. Any party or other person may, on request and without the required showing, obtain the person's own previous statement about the action or its subject matter. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order, and K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, applies to the award of expenses. A previous statement is either:

(i) A written statement that the person has signed or otherwise adopted or approved; or

(ii) a contemporaneous stenographic, mechanical, electrical or other recording, or a transcription of it, that recites substantially verbatim the person's oral statement.

(5) Trial preparation; experts.

(A) Deposition of an expert who may testify. A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. If a disclosure is required under subsection (b)(6), the deposition may be conducted only after the disclosure is provided.

(B) Trial-preparation protection for draft disclosures. Subsections (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) protect drafts of any disclosure required under subsection (b)(6), and drafts of a disclosure by an expert witness provided in lieu of the disclosure required by subsection (b)(6), regardless of the form in which the draft is recorded.

(C) Trial-preparation protection for communications between a party's attorney and expert witnesses. Subsections (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) protect communications between the party's attorney and any witness about whom disclosure is required under subsection (b)(6), regardless of the form of the communications, except to the extent that the communications:

(i) Relate to compensation for the expert's study or testimony;

(ii) identify facts or data that the party's attorney provided and that the expert considered in forming the opinions to be expressed; or

(iii) identify assumptions that the party's attorney provided and that the expert relied on in forming the opinions to be expressed.

(D) Expert employed only for trial preparation. Ordinarily, a party may not, by interrogatories or deposition, discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or to prepare for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial. But a party may do so only:

(i) As provided in subsection (b) of K.S.A. 60-235, and amendments thereto; or

(ii) on showing exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

(E) Payment. Unless manifest injustice would result, the court must require that the party seeking discovery:

(i) Pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under subsection (b)(5)(A) or (b)(5)(D); and

(ii) for discovery under subsection (b)(5)(D), also pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses it reasonably incurred in obtaining the expert's facts and opinions.

(6) Disclosure of expert testimony. (A) Required disclosures. A party must disclose to other parties the identity of any witness it may use at trial to present expert testimony. The disclosure must state:

(i) The subject matter on which the expert is expected to testify; and

(ii) the substance of the facts and opinions to which the expert is expected to testify.

(B) Witness who is retained or specially employed. Unless otherwise stipulated or ordered by the court, if the witness is retained or specially employed to provide expert testimony in the case, or is one whose duties as the party's employee regularly involve giving expert testimony, the disclosure under subsection (b)(6)(A) must also state a summary of the grounds for each opinion.

(C) Time to disclose expert testimony. A party must make these disclosures at the times and in the sequence that the court orders. Absent a stipulation or court order, the disclosures must be made:

(i) At least 90 days before the date set for trial or for the case to be ready for trial; or

(ii) if the evidence is intended solely to contradict or rebut evidence on the same subject matter identified by another party under subsection (b)(6)(B), within 30 days after the other party's disclosure.

(D) Supplementing the disclosure. The parties must supplement these disclosures when required under subsection (e).

(E) Form of disclosures. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, all disclosures under this subsection must be:

(i) In writing, signed and served; and

(ii) filed with the court in accordance with subsection (d) of K.S.A. 60-205, and amendments thereto.

(7) Claiming privilege or protecting trial preparation materials. (A) Information withheld. When a party withholds information otherwise discoverable by claiming that the information is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material, the party must:

(i) Expressly make the claim; and

(ii) describe the nature of the documents, communications or things not produced or disclosed, and do so in a manner that, without revealing information itself privileged or protected, will enable other parties to assess the claim.

(B) Information produced. If information produced in discovery is subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as trial preparation material, the party making the claim may notify any party that received the information of the claim and the basis for it. After being notified, a party must promptly return, sequester or destroy the specified information and any copies it has; must not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved; must take reasonable steps to retrieve the information if the party disclosed it before being notified; and may promptly present the information to the court under seal for a determination of the claim. The producing party must preserve the information until the claim is resolved.

(c) Protective orders. (1) In general. A party or any person from whom discovery is sought may move for a protective order in the court where the action is pending, as an alternative on matters relating to a deposition, in the district court where the deposition will be taken. The motion must include a certification that the movant has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with other affected parties in an effort to resolve the dispute without court action and must describe the steps taken by all attorneys or unrepresented parties to resolve the issues in dispute. The court may, for good cause, issue an order to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following:

(A) Forbidding the disclosure or discovery;

(B) specifying terms, including time and place, for the disclosure or discovery;

(C) prescribing a discovery method other than the one selected by the party seeking discovery;

(D) forbidding inquiry into certain matters, or limiting the scope of disclosure or discovery to certain matters;

(E) designating the persons who may be present while the discovery is conducted;

(F) requiring that a deposition be sealed and opened only on court order;

(G) requiring that a trade secret or other confidential research, development or commercial information not be revealed or be revealed only in a specified way; and

(H) requiring that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information in sealed envelopes, to be opened as the court orders.

(2) Ordering discovery. If a motion for a protective order is wholly or partly denied the court may, on just terms, order that any party or person provide or permit discovery.

(3) Awarding expenses. The provisions of K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, apply to the award of expenses.

(d) Sequence of discovery. Unless, on motion, the court orders otherwise for the parties' and witnesses' convenience and in the interests of justice:

(1) Methods of discovery may be used in any sequence; and

(2) discovery by one party does not require any other party to delay its discovery.

(e) Supplementing disclosures and responses. (1) In general. A party who has made a disclosure under subsection (b)(6), or who has responded to an interrogatory, request for production or request for admission, must supplement or correct its disclosure or response:

(A) In a timely manner if the party learns that in some material respect the disclosure or response is incomplete or incorrect, and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the discovery process or in writing; or

(B) as ordered by the court.

(2) Expert witness. For an expert to whom the disclosure requirement in subsection (b)(6) applies, the party's duty to supplement extends both to information included in the disclosure and to information given during the expert's deposition. Any additions or changes to this information must be disclosed at least 30 days before trial, unless the court orders otherwise.

(f) Signing disclosures and discovery requests, responses and objections. (1) Signature required; effect of signature. Every disclosure under subsection (b)(6) and every discovery request, response or objection must be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney's own name, or by the party personally, if unrepresented, and must state the signor's address, e-mail address and telephone number. By signing, an attorney or party certifies that to the best of the person's knowledge, information and belief formed after a reasonable inquiry:

(A) With respect to a disclosure, it is complete and correct as of the time it is made;

(B) with respect to a discovery request, response or objection, it is:

(i) Consistent with the rules of civil procedure and warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for extending, modifying or reversing existing law or for establishing new law;

(ii) not interposed for any improper purpose, such as to harass, cause unnecessary delay or needlessly increase the cost of litigation; and

(iii) neither unreasonable nor unduly burdensome or expensive considering the needs of the case, prior discovery in the case, the amount in controversy and the importance of the issues at stake in the action.

(2) Failure to sign. Other parties have no duty to act on an unsigned disclosure, request, response or objection until it is signed, and the court must strike it unless a signature is promptly supplied after the omission is called to the attorney's or party's attention.

(3) Sanction for improper certification. If a certification violates this section without substantial justification, the court, on motion, or on its own, must impose an appropriate sanction on the signer, the party on whose behalf the signer was acting, or both. The sanction may include an order to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, caused by the violation.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-226; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 20, 1972; L. 1986, ch. 215, § 6; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 11; L. 2008, ch. 21, § 2; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 95; L. 2011, ch. 48, § 8; L. 2012, ch. 35, § 2; July 1.